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U.S. scientists have developed a molecular high-power microscope to detect HIV

2020-08-14 11:57:47
Times

The high-power microscope HIV in situ analysis technology made another breakthrough. At the International AIDS Conference held last week, American scientists demonstrated their new detection technology and test results. This probe called "molecular microscope" can accurately detect the hiding place of HIV inside and outside the cell.

 

Richard Pu, deputy director of the Vaccine Research Center of the American Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said that this new molecular microscope technology is amazing. Its super power can fully insight into the clues of HIV in any cell and can help. To figure out the mystery of the long-term persistence of HIV, so as to eliminate it from the body.


Electron microscope manufacturers


New technology is almost undisturbed


The currently used in situ analysis techniques of HIV in testing organizations are facing common problems. These detection technologies, whether using fluorescent materials as markers or radioactive materials as markers, are often difficult to accurately locate the location of HIV in a tissue sample, and it is often difficult to compare the surrounding cellular material with target detection objects, such as HIV RNA and DNA. Differentiate. These markers will misidentify the cell tissue as a virus and cause background interference to the result analysis.


According to the website of "Science" magazine, the detailed pictures of HIV obtained from different monkey organizations displayed at the meeting showed that the new technology was almost undisturbed. Jack East, an immunologist at the Frederick National Laboratory of the National Cancer Institute, and American Cell Diagnostics (ACD), which owns RNA microscopes, developed this new technology that can detect tissues separately or simultaneously HIV DNA and RNA. Thanks to ACD’s unique probe design patent, RNA microscope is the current RNA detection technology tool, which realizes the visualization and quantification of a single RNA in situ, can simultaneously realize signal amplification and reduce background interference, and can detect any tissue in any tissue. gene. The molecular microscope for HIV detection is developed on the basis of RNA microscope.


Both DNA and RNA are composed of complementary nucleotide pairs. The traditional method of capturing genetic material is to use long strands of nucleotides called oligomers to find paired DNA or RNA strands in tissue samples and pair with each other. These oligomers carry markers. When it detects the target, the marker will send a signal and take a picture. Researchers can find the distribution of viral genetic material in the tissue sample from the picture. But these oligomer molecules are too long, they occasionally make mistakes, and when combined with other cellular materials, they ignore the target sequence to be detected.


The principle of molecular microscope


East's new technology includes a more complex probe system that can completely eliminate the false hits and collisions caused by oligomers. The basic principle of this technique is to first cut the oligomer into two equal parts, and then send the two equal parts to the sample to find the target sequence. Only when the two separated segments stay near the target detection sequence, they can Reconnect them after successfully pairing with the target sequence. This means that the two segments of the oligomer can only pair up and meet again when they encounter HIV, and other cellular materials can no longer cause interference.


AIDS virus itself is an RNA virus, but it will be converted into DNA form so that it can "dive into" human chromosomes at any time. East also collaborated with virologist Jeffrey Livson to successfully develop a DNA microscope that visualizes HIV DNA. These latent virus precursors will be integrated into human cells and will be hidden safely for decades before being attacked by the immune system or antiretroviral drugs. One important reason why antiretroviruses cannot eliminate AIDS infection and cure AIDS patients is that There are a large number of cells that "hide" the virus precursor.


Not let go of any virus


East, Lifson and colleagues injected ape HIV into some monkeys, and then performed in situ analysis of many tissues in these monkeys. The results show that RNA microscope and DNA microscope can clearly distinguish the lurking HIV precursor (ie, viral DNA), viral RNA, and viruses outside the cell. East said: "I firmly believe that our new technology will not let go of any virus, it perfectly combines sensitivity and specificity."


These new molecular microscopes can overcome several major obstacles on the road to curing AIDS. One major obstacle is the inability to detect HIV in the plasma of AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, it is difficult for researchers to evaluate the specific effects of some new AIDS therapies. New microscopy technology will be a powerful supplement to overcome existing technical obstacles. Another major obstacle is the inability to know exactly where the virus precursors are hidden in the body. New technologies can unravel this long-standing mystery and help greatly reduce the number of HIV-infected cells and treat patients more specifically.


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